Pursue the evolution of packaging function and form (5)

6. The demand for market competition - the continuous enrichment of packaging

The history of industrialized packaging development is not only the history of the development of packaging materials and manufacturing processes, but also the history of changes in packaging forms that constantly adapt to market competition. The main packaging materials such as metal, cardboard, glass, plastic, etc., can have today's rich and varied forms that have undergone an evolving process.

(1) Development of metal packaging

The idea of ​​using metal cans as packaging was born 200 years ago. In 1795, Napoleon paid a golden reward for the needs of the army's expedition, and he was able to think of people who kept food for a long time. Since then, the development of metal packaging has continued, and manufacturing and food preservation methods have entered a period of rapid development in the 19th century. In 1810, Durand invented the method of using metal cans to preserve food. Initially, metal packaging did not quickly spread due to limitations in production processes and costs. During the American Civil War, metal cans were widely used because of the needs of the military and the need for people to store food for war.

As a result of advances in technology, the scope of application of metallic materials has also expanded. In 1841, American portraitist Pelo rode used extrusion to manufacture metallic tube-mounted pigments. This technology then began to be used in large numbers. By 1892, "Colgate" had put toothpaste into metal hoses for the first time and was soon accepted by consumers.

In 1868, color printing iron technology was invented, and the image of metal packaging was renewed. With the development of lithographic technology, the printing iron technology has also taken a higher level. In 1810, a worker was able to produce about 60 tin cans a day. In 1846, Enli Epoche invented a machine that produced 600 cans a day. In 1870, the United Kingdom established the first metal can manufacturing plant. Large machine production. Nowadays, the most advanced processing plants have reached production capacity of less than 1 million cans a day. In Europe alone, there is an annual production capacity of over 32 billion cans.

The appearance of aluminum packaging is another major leap in metal packaging technology. It is soft and light, with only l/3 of iron sheet and good gloss. In the 1930s, many daily necessities and foods began to use aluminum hose for packaging, such as toothpaste, face cream, glue, shoe polish, sauce, cheese, condensed milk and so on. In 1963, aluminum cans were born, which greatly promoted the development of the canned beer and beverage industry due to its ease of use and economical cost. In 1943, Sullivan obtained a patent for the air spray can device in the United States. It combines the principles of physics and mechanics and brings great convenience to people's lives. In addition, with the continuous advancement of technology, metal packaging has become more and more colorful in the molding process, and the application field has also been expanding.

(2) Development of Cardboard Packaging

In the early 19th century, grocers often falsified or falsified food in retail, which often caused public anger. A manufacturer named John Hornyman packed the mixed tea at the factory and printed his name and address on the packaging to avoid the above problems. This is the beginning of manufacturer's packaging.
The emergence of direct packaging manufacturers can be said to be a revolution in business, it played the prelude to modern business. Manufacturers and consumers are in direct contact to avoid friction between buyers and sellers. However, the initial promotion was very difficult, and the grocers were reluctant to retail such goods. Such prepackaged goods reduced the profits that could be obtained from retail sales. In times when the grocery store is an important sales channel, the demand for cartons has gradually increased. To replace cartons with cartons, the key is to reduce the cost of cartons and ensure sufficient production. People realize that a complete box can be made by cutting and folding a piece of cardboard. It is both quick and easy to lay flat and takes up less space before molding. This method first appeared in the United States in 1850, and the trend of commercial development determined that it was destined to play an important role in the packaging industry, especially after the rise of the cigarette industry.

In the middle of the 19th century, carton packs in the United Kingdom, France and other countries and the United States market had become popular. The cost of carton packaging is low, the production process is relatively simple, and the packaging can be printed with exquisite designs, and the publicity effect is good. The emergence of corrugated paper also expands the application of paper packaging to the outer packaging for transport. In the course of development, people gradually overcome the characteristics of oil-proof and poor moisture resistance of paper packages, and produce special papers suitable for the characteristics of goods. In 1897, the United States began to appear waxed biscuit carton packaging. In the 1950s, a company in Sweden used paper made of plastic to pack milk. The packaging was triangular in shape and it was innovative and easy to drink. Later, on the basis of this, the United Kingdom changed the package shape into a brick shape. This package quickly replaced traditional glass bottles and was used to package other liquid products such as juices and beverages.

Cardboard packaging is very easy to mold. In the form of changes with the needs of the market, timely and easy. For example, the use of skylights on the packaging, easy to carry portable structure, like the hard box flip packaging. In particular, with the reform of sales methods, the form of paper packaging has also undergone great changes. For example, POP-type packaging, fast-food packaging, and personalized store product packaging that are more suitable for supermarket sales.

In 2000, the national per capita paper consumption was 26 kilograms (Shanghai's per capita reached 100 kilograms), which is only half of the world's average per capita consumption level, and far below the per capita annual average of 200 to 300 kilograms in developed countries. Since the reform and opening up, the domestic demand for paper consumption has become more and more prosperous. In the 1990s, China’s paper consumption increased at an annual rate of 12%, reaching about 35 million tons last year, second only to the United States, ranking second in the world. According to the plan, by 2005, China's paper consumption will reach 38 to 40 million tons, and it is expected to increase to 6000 to 65 million tons in 2015. China's paper product market has great potential.

(3) Development of glass packaging

Glass originated in Egypt. As early as the 16th century BC, the ancient Egyptians invented a method of producing glass containers using quartz as raw material and hot pressing. In the 1st century BC, the Romans invented the method of blowing glass and created the factory "relief glass process." This blowing technique was passed from Rome to China in the Han Dynasty. By the Ming Dynasty, China had been able to produce glassware in large quantities. Glass bottles were used as early as 300 AD in Roman families. In 1809, Appert invented the method of using glass bottles to preserve food. Since then, in the latter half of the 19th century, many goods sold in shops and grocery stores used glass bottles as packaging. Starting from 1884, milk began to be used. Glass bottles for filling production. Glass bottles have a long history as the packaging of wines, especially wines. In 1903, Owens successfully developed an automatic glass manufacturing machine, making it possible to mass-produce inexpensive bottled beer. After the 20th century, new technologies continued to emerge. Tempered glass, relief technology, sandblasting, and painting techniques brought a more aesthetic appearance to packaging containers for wine, cosmetics, and food.

In 1936, the thermoforming method of plastic film in France became the heat shrink packaging technology of meat food, and later combined with vacuum technology, extended the shelf life of meat food. The progress of plastic molding technology has gradually replaced many glass bottle packagings due to its cost advantage and non-breakable characteristics. In addition, the original metal squeezable hoses were gradually replaced by plastic hoses. In 1945, foamed polyurethane was developed and used in large quantities in packaging as a cushioning material. Since then, plastic materials have continued to improve. Since the 1990s, although plastic packaging materials have always been a serious environmental problem, plastics are still one of the fastest growing materials in the packaging industry, according to data published in recent years.

At the beginning of the 21st century, with the ever-increasing growth of the world economy and the continuous development of high technology, products are changing with each passing day, and there is a higher demand for daily goods packaging, food packaging, and industrial packaging. On the other hand, with the growing demand for environmental protection, and under the premise of satisfying the packaging function, the amount of waste generated is reduced as much as possible, thereby presenting a trend towards lightweight and thin-walled packaging films, containers and sheets. In particular, the development of polyethylene and polypropylene further enhances many properties of flexible packaging structures, such as toughness, transparency, barrier properties, heat resistance, and puncture resistance, and can reduce the heat sealing temperature, improve the processing technology, and improve Packaging line speed and so on. One of the characteristics of polyethylene food packaging film is that it can control the permeability of oxygen, carbon dioxide and water vapor, and greatly prolong the shelf life of foods. Plastic composites, plastic alloys, and inorganic materials filled with reinforced plastics, which are hailed as plastic planets of tomorrow, are based on the development of the 20th century. Through the joint efforts of basic research and applied research, production and processing technologies will be obtained. Further improvement and improvement, product performance will be improved and serialization will be achieved, and more progress will be made in terms of functions, which will have a greater impact on improving the quality, added value, and environmental performance of plastic packaging as well as the development of new products. Entering the 21st century, in order to meet the needs of economic development, people's lives and markets, and at the same time adapt to the requirements of environmental protection, all countries strengthen research and development on the one hand, and select environmental-friendly plastic packaging materials and technologies while also actively studying how to strengthen their waste. Comprehensive management measures and measures. Technically ensured the healthy and smooth development of the plastics industry and demonstrated the good prospects for plastic packaging.

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